Positivism

Positivism implied not merely an appeal to science but almost reverence for science. The positivist appeal of science was to be seen everywhere. The 19th century saw the virtual institutionalisation of the ideal of science was to be seen everywhere. The great aim was that of dealing with moral values, institutions, and all social phenomena through the same fundamental methods that could be used so successfully in such areas as physics or biology.
Prior to the 19th century, no very clear distinction had made between philosophy and science. But now the distinction between philosophy ans science became very clear. It was also felt that every area of man's thought and behaviour could be put to scientific investigation. More than anyone else, it was Auguste Comte who heralded the idea of the scientific treatment of social behaviour. His book "Positive Philosophy" [original French name: "Cours de Philosophy Positive"] published in six volumes between 1830 and 1842, sought to demonstrate the necessity of the science of man in society. He coined the word "sociology" would be for "man the social being" exactly what biology had already done for "man the biological animal". Compte was not alone to argue and in this manner. He was supported by many thinkers of the day.

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